In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire. The civilisation began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, traditionally dated to 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time) covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a elective monarchy to a democratic classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic semi-elective military dictatorship during the Empire. Through conquest, cultural, and linguistic assimilation, at its height it controlled the North African coast, Egypt, Southern Europe, and most of Western Europe, the Balkans, Crimea and much of the Middle East, including Anatolia, Levant and parts of Mesopotamia and Arabia. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republic such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars, Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily; took Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal); and destroyed the city of Carthage in 146 BC, giving Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean. By the end of the Republic (27 BC), Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus. Seven-hundred and twenty-one years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with the first struggle against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. It stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century before some stability was restored in the Dominate phase of imperial rule.
Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power through the middle ages until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most commonly referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians to differentiate between the state in antiquity and the state during the Middle Ages. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, and who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf (or a shepherd's wife in some accounts) saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. The twins then founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about who was going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem, in that Rome came to have a large male population but was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave. One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they soon realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships. The Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid, where the Trojan prince Aeneas is destined by the gods to found a new Troy. In the epic, the women also refuse to go back to the sea, but they were not left on the Tiber. After reaching Italy, Aeneas, who wanted to marry Lavinia, was forced to wage war with her former suitor, Turnus. According to the poem, the Alban kings were descended from Aeneas, and thus Romulus, the founder of Rome, was his descendant. The city of Rome grew from settlements around a ford on the river Tiber, a crossroads of traffic and trade. According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded some time in the 8th century BC, though it may go back as far as the 10th century BC, by members of the Latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the Palatine Hill.
The Etruscans, who had previously settled to the north in Etruria, seem to have established political control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming an aristocratic and monarchical elite. The Etruscans apparently lost power by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the original Latin and Sabine tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power. Roman tradition and archaeological evidence point to a complex within the Forum Romanum as the seat of power for the king and the beginnings of the religious center there as well. Numa Pompilius the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus, began Rome's building projects with his royal palace the Regia and the complex of the Vestal virgins. According to tradition and later writers such as Livy, the Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established. A constitution set a series of checks and balances, and a separation of powers. The most important magistrates were the two consuls, who together exercised executive authority such as imperium, or military command.The consuls had to work with the senate, which was initially an advisory council of the ranking nobility, or patricians, but grew in size and power.Other magistrates of the Republic include tribunes, quaestors, aediles, praetors and censors. The magistracies were originally restricted to patricians, but were later opened to common people, or plebeians. Republican voting assemblies included the comitia centuriata (centuriate assembly), which voted on matters of war and peace and elected men to the most important offices, and the comitia tributa (tribal assembly), which elected less important offices. In the 4th century BC, Rome had come under attack by the Gauls, who now extended their power in the Italian peninsula beyond the Po Valley and through Etruria. On 16 July 390 BC, a Gallic army under the leadership of tribal chieftain Brennus, met the Romans on the banks of the Allia River ten miles north of Rome. Brennus defeated the Romans, and the Gauls marched to Rome. Most Romans had fled the city, but some barricaded themselves upon the Capitoline Hill for a last stand. The Gauls looted and burned the city, then laid siege to the Capitoline Hill. The siege lasted seven months. The Gauls then agreed to give the Romans peace in exchange for 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of gold. According to later legend, the Roman supervising the weighing noticed that the Gauls were using false scales. The Romans then took up arms and defeated the Gauls. Their victorious general Camillus remarked "With iron, not with gold, Rome buys her freedom." The Romans gradually subdued the other peoples on the Italian peninsula, including the Etruscans.] The last threat to Roman hegemony in Italy came when Tarentum, a major Greek colony, enlisted the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus in 281 BC, but this effort failed as well. The Romans secured their conquests by founding Roman colonies in strategic areas, thereby establishing stable control over the region of Italy they had conquered. In the 3rd century BC Rome faced a new and formidable opponent: Carthage. Carthage was a rich, flourishing Phoenician city-state that intended to dominate the Mediterranean area. The two cities were allies in the times of Pyrrhus, who was a menace to both, but with Rome's hegemony in mainland Italy and the Carthaginian thalassocracy, these cities became the two major powers in the Western Mediterranean and their contention over the Mediterranean led to conflict.
The First Punic War began in 264 BC, when the city of Messana asked for Carthage's help in their conflicts with Hiero II of Syracuse. After the Carthaginian intercession, Messana asked Rome to expel the Carthaginians. Rome entered this war because Syracuse and Messana were too close to the newly conquered Greek cities of Southern Italy and Carthage was now able to make an offensive through Roman territory; along with this, Rome could extend its domain over Sicily. Although the Romans had experience in land battles, defeating this new enemy required naval battles. Carthage was a maritime power, and the Roman lack of ships and naval experience made the path to the victory a long and difficult one for the Roman Republic. Despite this, after more than 20 years of war, Rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed. Among the reasons for the Second Punic War was the subsequent war reparations Carthage acquiesced to at the end of the First Punic War. The Second Punic War is famous for its brilliant generals: on the Punic side Hannibal and Hasdrubal; on the Roman, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus and Publius Cornelius Scipio. Rome fought this war simultaneously with the First Macedonian War. The war began with the audacious invasion of Hispania by Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had led operations on Sicily in the First Punic War. Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, rapidly marched through Hispania to the Italian Alps, causing panic among Rome's Italian allies. The best way found to defeat Hannibal's purpose of causing the Italians to abandon Rome was to delay the Carthaginians with a guerrilla war of attrition, a strategy propounded by Quintus Fabius Maximus, who would be nicknamed Cunctator ("delayer" in Latin), and whose strategy would be forever after known as Fabian. Due to this, Hannibal's goal was unachieved: he could not bring enough Italian cities to revolt against Rome and replenish his diminishing army, and he thus lacked the machines and manpower to besiege Rome. Still, Hannibal's invasion lasted over 16 years, ravaging Italy. Finally, when the Romans perceived the depletion of Hannibal's supplies, they sent Scipio, who had defeated Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal in modern-day Spain, to invade the unprotected Carthaginian hinterland and force Hannibal to return to defend Carthage itself. The result was the ending of the Second Punic War by the famously decisive Battle of Zama in October 202 BC, which gave to Scipio his agnomen Africanus. At great cost, Rome had made significant gains: the conquest of Hispania by Scipio, and of Syracuse, the last Greek realm in Sicily, by Marcellus. More than a half century after these events, Carthage was humiliated and Rome was no more concerned about the African menace. The Republic's focus now was only to the Hellenistic kingdoms of Greece and revolts in Hispania. However, Carthage, after having paid the war indemnity, felt that its commitments and submission to Rome had ceased, a vision not shared by the Roman Senate. When in 151 BC Numidia invaded Carthage, Carthage asked for Roman intercession. Ambassadors were sent to Carthage, among them was Marcus Porcius Cato, who after seeing that Carthage could make a comeback and regain its importance, ended all his speeches, no matter what the subject was, by saying: "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" ("Furthermore, I think that Carthage must be destroyed"). As Carthage fought with Numidia without Roman consent, the Third Punic War began when Rome declared war against Carthage in 149 BC. Carthage resisted well at the first strike, with the participation of all the inhabitants of the city. However, Carthage could not withstand the attack of Scipio Aemilianus.
As Carthage fought with Numidia without Roman consent, the Third Punic War began when Rome declared war against Carthage in 149 BC. Carthage resisted well at the first strike, with the participation of all the inhabitants of the city. However, Carthage could not withstand the attack of Scipio Aemilianus, who entirely destroyed the city and its walls, enslaved and sold all the citizens and gained control of that region, which became the province of Africa. Thus ended the Punic War period. All these wars resulted in Rome's first overseas conquests (Sicily, Hispania and Africa) and the rise of Rome as a significant imperial power and began the end of democracy. After defeating the Macedonian and Seleucid Empires in the 2nd century BC, the Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean Sea. The conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms brought the Roman and Greek cultures in closer contact and the Roman elite, once rural, became a luxurious and cosmopolitan one. At this time Rome was a consolidated empire—in the military view—and had no major enemies. Foreign dominance led to internal strife. Senators became rich at the provinces' expense; soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home longer and could not maintain their land; and the increased reliance on foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia reduced the availability of paid work.
Income from war booty, mercantilism in the new provinces, and tax farming created new economic opportunities for the wealthy, forming a new class of merchants, called the equestrians. The lex Claudia forbade members of the Senate from engaging in commerce, so while the equestrians could theoretically join the Senate, they were severely restricted in political power. The Senate squabbled perpetually, repeatedly blocked important land reforms and refused to give the equestrian class a larger say in the government.
Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence. The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians. Both brothers were killed and the Senate passed reforms reversing the Gracchi brother's actions. This led to the growing divide of the plebeian groups (populares) and equestrian classes (optimates).Marius and Sulla
Gaius Marius, a novus homo, who started his political career with the help of the powerful Metelli family soon become a leader of the Republic, holding the first of his seven consulships (an unprecedented number) in 107 BC by arguing that his former patron Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus was not able to defeat and capture the Numidian king Jugurtha. Marius then started his military reform: in his recruitment to fight Jugurtha, he levied the very poor (an innovation), and many landless men entered the army; this was the seed of securing loyalty of the army to the General in command.
At this time, Marius began his quarrel with Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Marius, who wanted to capture Jugurtha, asked Bocchus, son-in-law of Jugurtha, to hand him over. As Marius failed, Sulla, a general of Marius at that time, in a dangerous enterprise, went himself to Bocchus and convinced Bocchus to hand Jugurtha over to him. This was very provocative to Marius, since many of his enemies were encouraging Sulla to oppose Marius. Despite this, Marius was elected for five consecutive consulships from 104 to 100 BC, as Rome needed a military leader to defeat the Cimbri and the Teutones, who were threatening Rome.After Marius's retirement, Rome had a brief peace, during which the Italian socii ("allies" in Latin) requested Roman citizenship and voting rights.
In 88 BC, Sulla was elected for his first consulship and his first assignment was to defeat Mithridates VI of Pontus, whose intentions were to conquer the Eastern part of the Roman territories. However, Marius's partisans managed his installation to the military command, defying Sulla and the Senate, and this caused Sulla's wrath. To consolidate his own power, Sulla conducted a surprising and illegal action: he marched to Rome with his legions, killing all those who showed support to Marius's cause and impaling their heads in the Roman Forum. In the following year, 87 BC, Marius, who had fled at Sulla's march, returned to Rome while Sulla was campaigning in Greece. He seized power along with the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna and killed the other consul, Gnaeus Octavius, achieving his seventh consulship. In an attempt to raise Sulla's anger, Marius and Cinna revenged their partisans by conducting a massacre. Marius died in 86 BC, due to age and poor health, just a few months after seizing power. Cinna exercised absolute power until his death in 84 BC. Sulla after returning from his Eastern campaigns, had a free path to reestablish his own power. In 83 BC he made his second march in Rome and began a time of terror: thousands of nobles, knights and senators were executed. Sulla also held two dictatorships and one more consulship, which began the crisis and decline of Roman Republic. In the mid-1st century BC, Roman politics were restless. Political divisions in Rome became identified with two groupings, populares (who hoped for the support of the people) and optimates (the "best", who wanted to maintain exclusive aristocratic control). Sulla overthrew all populist leaders and his constitutional reforms removed powers (such as those of the tribune of the plebs) that had supported populist approaches. Meanwhile, social and economic stresses continued to build; Rome had become a metropolis with a super-rich aristocracy, debt-ridden aspirants, and a large proletariat often of impoverished farmers. The latter groups supported the Catilinarian conspiracy—a resounding failure, since the consul Marcus Tullius Cicero quickly arrested and executed the main leaders of the conspiracy.
Onto this turbulent scene emerged Gaius Julius Caesar, from an aristocratic family of limited wealth. His aunt Julia was Marius' wife, and Caesar identified with the populares. To achieve power, Caesar reconciled the two most powerful men in Rome: Marcus Licinius Crassus, who had financed much of his earlier career, and Crassus' rival, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (anglicized as Pompey), to whom he married his daughter. He formed them into a new informal alliance including himself, the First Triumvirate ("three men"). This satisfied the interests of all three: Crassus, the richest man in Rome, became richer and ultimately achieved high military command; Pompey exerted more influence in the Senate; and Caesar obtained the consulship and military command in Gaul. So long as they could agree, the three were in effect the rulers of Rome. In 54 BC, Caesar's daughter, Pompey's wife, died in childbirth, unraveling one link in the alliance. In 53 BC, Crassus invaded Parthia and was killed in the Battle of Carrhae. The Triumvirate disintegrated at Crassus' death. Crassus had acted as mediator between Caesar and Pompey, and, without him, the two generals manoeuvred against each other for power. Caesar conquered Gaul, obtaining immense wealth, respect in Rome and the loyalty of battle-hardened legions. He also became a clear menace to Pompey and was loathed by many optimates. Confident that Caesar could be stopped by legal means, Pompey's party tried to strip Caesar of his legions, a prelude to Caesar's trial, impoverishment, and exile.
My Roman friend Paul has been having a crush on this girl named Jo for eight years but Jo has a boyfriend. His friend said "That's totally fair. She's quite attractive" But he's beginning to realise he has no place in her scheme of things. He's just being a doormat so I told him to forget her. She's just not worth it. His uncle said "you would be better off without her" His mother too said "you'll be better off without her" Paul works as an accounting manager at Hilton but if he takes the job at Big 4 he'll be four thousand eight hundred dollars a month better off but he's still better off now than he was two years ago when he was working below everybody else in the department. He thinks a junior accountant position is beneath him. If he hadn't taken the CPA exam he wouldn't be working as a manager now. If he had pursued a career in sales rather than accounting his salary would be much lower. If it hadn't been for his auntie's referral his career wouldn't take off now and he wouldn't start earning a lot of money. He's a science fiction fan. He said "if starships really would exist I would quit my job and spend the rest of my life roaming the universe" Recently his sister married her childhood sweetheart. Her father felt she was marrying beneath her. Her uncle too feels her husband is beneath her. She enjoys socializing with the better off. Last month Paul was away on a business trip to Hokkaido. After his trip I said "if you should travel there again can you get me a pack of white lover cookies please?" Paul is a computer expert. His cousin has to write a report which is due on Thursday but he's having problems with his computer. If Paul will go and fix his computer he'll be so thankful for his help. He also has exams next Monday so he's better off revising at home over the weekend. Paul is a kickboxing fan. His favourite fighter Dan has won his retirement fight lately. He's eternally grateful to his coaches and thankful that he's got a job as a colour commentator after he retired from the sport. All the fans wanna see Fred versus Randy. If Fred would sign a contract with the organisation Dana will make the fight happen. When Randy was reading the terms and conditions of the contract Dana's assistant said "if you would just sign here please" Paul's brother is a concierge in a hotel. I said "if it'll make you happy I'll come to stay for a night as company for you while your colleagues are away" By the end of the next century scientists will have invented starships. As I'm fascinated by the science of starships I'm going to ask physicist Dr. Chow about it. I'm gonna wait outside the lecture room at five to six. He will have finished his lecture. I thought about phoning him at twenty to two but my friend said "don't phone him now. He won't have finished his lecture yet" It's true that he wouldn't have finished teaching yet.
Not every man's type of women are the same. Of course everybody likes handsome and beautiful people. In terms of appearance some men like petite women, some like sporty women, some like them svelte, dome like them tall and thin, some like them well-rounded and curvaceous, some like them voluptuous, some like them busty, some like wide hips, some like curvy legs, some like silky feet and so on. In terms of personality, some men like kind-hearted and helpful women, some like vivacious, some like them compassionate, some like them quiet, some like them sociable and talkative, some like them tactful and diplomatic, some like to be controlled and dominated and so forth. Some women seem to bloom in their early-thirties. For example Tracy has bloomed into an utterly beautiful creature. Paul is a fan of tracy Zhu and samantha Gao, both of whom are exquisitely beautiful women. Like him they both have an exquisite taste in fashion, shows, hairstyles, food, interior and exterior design. Both are glamorous women who always dress up in glamorous outfits. They rarely dress down.
I once saw tracy dress up in eighties clothing for a party whereas samantha was in a kimono. Both of them have a glamorous job and career. Tracy has got a leading role in the upcoming television series while samantha has got a supporting role in it. She plays the role of a doctor in it. By the way I don't think Paul need to dress up to go to work. A polo shirt and shorts are fine. Just dress down to go to work lol.
Last week my Roman friend Joe asked if I would like to eat supper at his place. I replied in the affirmative. I had some snacks beforehand to take the edge of my hunger. Joe's favoirite food is beef served with onion. We cut the meat and red peppers into dice, peeled and diced the potatoes and chop the onions. We were careful because the knife has a razor-sharp edge. The inside of the meat is raw while the outer surface is cooked. Onion can be eaten raw or cooked. We washed a bag of pasta salad and left it to dry out before eating it. In this way the salad contains more nutrients than when you consume it right after opening the bag. After supper I said "I'll wash you dry" He came to the kitchen and stood beside me drying up the cutlery and utensils while I washed. Since it's best to dry your clothes out the night before by hanging them on the clothesline I went ahead and helled him do that. We then joined his sister on a run along the promenade which felt relaxing. I bought her a pair of trainers who said she would pay me back if I got her those sneakers. Looks like she sold me a bill of goods- and then I bought s Gucci watchstrap but I'm wondering if this really is authentic. I might have been sold a pup. After running I gave her a foot massage and dried her feet on her brother's quilt lol and a towel. On the evening we joined with their mum in doing a fifty five thousand piece jigsaw puzzle. It was thoroughly enjoyable. Joe is a marketing manager at hilton. I enjoy his company. He uses photoshop every day for poster and banner design as photoshop is worth its weight in gold in digital marketing. The party poster he designed is fabulous. The gold words are clearly defined on the black background. I admire him on his ambition and dogged determination to succeed. He never gets sidetracked by unimportant issues. In addition he enjoys participating in debates. Just the other week he wiled the floor with all opposition during a debate about the existence of god which was pretty impressive. His best friend is his pug. He towels off the dig after its bath. Today dogs certainly don't come cheap including getting them spayed or neutered and any medications they take when they have a condition. His dad is a physics professor who along with his team are solving a notoriously difficult math question for all they're worth. Hopefully they'll find an answer to it soon. Besides physics he's an avid football fan. His favourite team Madrid is currently top of the league whereas rome is bottom of the league. Barcelona is lying fourth in the league this year. Recently Budapest edged milan two-one. Budapest edged its rival, Milan into third place. The league championship is the opportunity for the best teams in the league to strut their stuff. His brother-in-law is an estate agent who earns a basic salary of two hundred sixty nine thousand dollars per annum plus a three percent commission on every deal he makes so he doesn't work on commission only. So far this year his sales have fallen short of the expectations of his company partly because the economy is hardly blooming. He's a fan of Jacqueline Wong. Have you heard of the sex scandal involving her and Andy Hui? She was having an affair with andy who's married to Sammi. No doubt they were an item. As a result many people think it's time for her to hang up her spurs. In fact alan hung up his spurs several years ago because of a sex scandal. His elder sis is an iPhone saleswoman who is paid a daily wage of four hundred dollars.plus a twenty percent commission on the iphones she sells so her job isn't by commission only. Last year her profits fulfilled her expectation. She said she would be on strike but it turned out she was just joking as her dad is an intense patriot. If she had gone on strike her dad wouldn't be happy. Joe's younger sister is a concierge who feels she's chosen the wrong career choice. I said "why not wipe the slate clean and start over in a different career?"
My Roman friend Joe too suggested that she study a degree course and start with a clean slate. She blames her bad career decision on him. I said "let's just wipe the slate clean. It's over" She blames him for convincing her to be a concierge. Well that's the way the cookie crumbles. His auntie is a professional footballer. Shes so focused during a match that she never goes off on a sidetrack. His brother has opened a beauty parlour. Hopefully it attracts lots of customers since he bet the ranch on it. His uncle was broke several years ago because he bet the farm on his company which went bankrupt later. He managed to honour his debts in three years. His grandad was commissioned as.a sergeant major in the army whereas his great grandfather obtained a commission as a senior officer in the air force before the first world war. He was buried with full military honours. Some women seem to bloom in their early-thirties. For example tracy has bloomed into an utterly beautiful creature. Not every man's type of women is the same. Of course everybody likes handsome and beautiful people. In terms of appearance some men like petite women, some like sporty women, some like them svelte, some like them tall and thin, some like them well-rounded and curvaceous, some like them voluptuous, some like full bust, some like wode hips, some like shapely legs, some like silky feet and so forth. In terms of personality some men like kind-hearted and helpful women, some men like compassionate women, some like them vivacious, some like them tactful and diplomatic, some like them quiet, some like them sociable and talkative, some like to be controlled and dominated and so on. Joe is a fan of tracy Zhu and samantha Gao, both of whom are exquisitely beautiful women. Like him they both have an exquisite taste in fashion, shoes, food, hairstyles, interior and exterior design. Both are glamorous women who always dress up in glamorous outfits. They rarely dress down. I once saw tracy dress up in a bikini for a party while samantha was in superman costume. Both of them have a glamorous job and career. I consider acting a worthwhile career. Tracy has got a.leading role in the upcoming television series whereas samantha has got a supporting role in it. She plays the role of a doctor in it. By the way I don't think joe needs to dress up to go to work. A polo shirt and shorts are fine. Just dress down to go to work lol. Joe thinks if a girl without makeup still looks pretty then she's pretty. And there shouldn't be a big difference between with makeup and without.
Joe's cousin is planning on doing a phd since nowadays a master's isn't worth the paper it's written on let alone a bachelor degree. Last Wednesday he was almost swindled out of thousands of dollars. I told him that person was a scammer who was trying to swindle money from him. The contract isn't worth the paper its printed on. Fortunately he listened to me. Otherwise the scammer would've swindled him out of thousands of dollars. I've read in the newspapers that some customers were promised to get a refund of they weren't happy with the products but later they found out that they had been sold down the river as they have been unable to contact the scammer to date. The swindler didn't honour the contracts.I remember a decade ago there was a demonstration where the demonstrators clashed with the police in osaka. I saw it on NHK then. I thought the police were not tough enough. All the riot police were holding a shield in one hand and a nightstick in the other hand. In this way you can't really fight the protestors and arrest them since you have no free hands to grab ahold of them. That's why it took four policemen to get hold of one protestor. From a fighting viewpoint some of the riot police should be holding just a shield, some just a truncheon, the other both. And all of them should be trained on how they fight when they're holding just a shield, holding just a baton and holding both. It was utter chaos. I didn't think that isaka had ever been so disastrous before. The police who I wholeheartedly supported only used tear smoke in an attempt to disperse the protestors which was clearly not enough. The police shouldn't have been afraid of being criticized for using excessive force because this was utterly not the case. Firing rubber bullets and bean bags at the protestors was necessary, lawful and appropriate. Those who sabotaged the nearby buildings and the railings should've been thrown in jail. The train network was partially paralyzed for many weeks. The world had brought the city to the edge of a catastrophe. The United states had already imposed trade sanctions on Japan. The then united states president said he would take punitive measures against japan if the police there used excessive force. Japan was afraid that America would toughen punitive import tariffs still further on clothes, food, agricultural products and alcohol and worse still they would convince other nations to impose international economic sanctions against the country. Of course the downside was the cost of the products in America which they had imposed punitive import duties on would rise still higher. The economic sanctions against Japan wouldn't be lifted until the then US president's term of office expired a year later. The next day everybody was warned of the danger of violent clashes around the place only to discover that it was a false alarm. There were half as many people in the street. However as long as you kept up with the news and stayed away from.places where there were protests it was safe in osaka. In the same evening a bus crash killed twenty five passengers. Detectives assigned the blame for the accident to a hailstorm- and then a brutal murder took place in the capital. Detectives assigned hatred and jealousy as the motives for the horrendous crime.
I came to Rome in the company of my friend Amy. It was a long journey and I was grateful for her company. On the day we set off I was waiting for her on the corner outside times square. She lives just round the corner so it only took her ten minutes to arrive. Meanwhile a pedestrian came up and asked if there was any medical centre nearby as she had been suffering from heatstroke. I told her that there were a clinic and a pharmacy just around the corner. As summer was just round the corner people suffered from heatstroke more easily. However there're many ways to prevent heatstroke during hot weather. At home sitting in a recliner or an armchair or on a sofa rather than in a chair or on a stool works wonders for your body. Moreover, eating a balanced diet of veggies and fruits and a little meat does wonders for your health. Lastly, exercise and meditation can do wonders for mind and body. We stayed in our Roman friend Tomio's place for a few days. His elder brother had popped upstairs to get a book. We were watching television in the living room while Tomio was cooking in the kitchen. His younger brother had popped to the bank to get some cash while his sister had popped into a music shop to get some trumpet scores. As he entered the living room I jumped out from behind the wall and cried "Boo!" It was absolutely hilarious as I was finally able to frighten him successfully. Risa would pop in and see us later. His boyfriend would also pop over and visit us a day later. Risa said she deserved a promotion but instead her colleague was given a promotion because her boss is biased towards her colleague. I said that's the way the cookie crumbles. It's water under the bridge. What's done is done. Amy too said It's no use crying over spilt milk. What's done cannot be undone. Let bygones be bygones. Apparently his manager is also biased against her but in favour of her colleague. Oh well. She told me not to mention it when we're in company. By all means. Next week I'll pop over to her place to play her cornet. I prefer the company of musicians. Before she popped in she was browsing in Zara. In the meantime I went for a browse around a bookshop and popped into the bank to open an account. The residential estate Tomio lives in consists of houses rather than apartments. Each house has at least one retractable awning or canopy. The canopy could be made of stainless steel, cloth, glass, steel or concrete. In his front garden he planted a litchi tree, a mango tree, a black maple, two red maples, a chestnut oak and bushes in the lawn. Some of the bushes produce beautiful trombone-shaped flowers. He also grew flowers such as roses, orchids, sunflowers, hydrangeas, lavender and violets, most of which are in bloom. There're some exquisite flowerpots placed near the lawn. He mows the grass every now and then. He hires a gardener to manicure his garden from time to time. His back garden is enormous which is two thousand five hundred square foot in size. It used to be a lawn but he turned it into a meadow blanketed in wild flowers and exotic flowers. Some of the flower buds haven't opened yet but as the weather gets warmer the flowers open. Even inside his house he has a vase of hydrangea and a couple plotted plants, some of which are just coming into bloom. Orchids can be cultivated in flower pots or in vases. In summer the meadow is covered in beautiful summer flowers. In spring the meadow is blanketed with lovely spring flowers. In the fall, the meadow is a mass of pretty fall flowers. In winter lovely winter flowers bloom in the meadow. It's an extraordinary garden. Every valentine's day Tomio buys his wife a bouquet of red roses and hydrangea. They're beautiful cut flowers. On the morning of the first day, his next-door neighbour's canopy was leaking all over the floor in Tomio's garden due to heavy rain.
The water pipe attached to his stainless steel canopy was also dripping water down the wall onto his floor so he asked if he could enter their garden and wipe the edge of the canopy and the water pipe and mop them so as to stop water from leaking out of them. I too entered their garden and helped mop the water pipe and the edge of the canopy so as to stop water from leaking from them. There was a leak in their canopy so they had a bucket underneath for the water to drop into but the bucket was overflowing all over the floor which caused flooding. Then we placed another bucket beside it but very soon water began to overflow from the bucket. I tried to soak up the water with towels but it was impossible. Water soaked into my shoes. Rain soaked through his shoes and clothes too. Some of his neighbours said they had a leak inside their house as well. I asked him if the typhoon that happened a little while ago do any damage to his house. He said some tree branches and twigs tumbled down during the hurricane so he had to give his garden a good cleanup. Some tree trunks in the nearby park toppled over as a result of the hurricane. Risa called two hours later and said she finally got a promotion. The opportunity that she'd waited for so long has finally come along. Opportunities like this don't always come along. After she left zara her friends came along in her car and offered her a lift to a restaurant and celebrated with her. I enjoy my own company and so does she. I enjoy strolling hand in hand with my girlfriend along the nearby beach. In fact I went there earlier. With only my thoughts for company I lay down on the beach reading a book. It was thoroughly enjoyable. Risa arrived on the early evening. I didn't know she had company. As she was the last person to leave the house I kept her company until the bus came. Tomio wants to train Muay Thai privately rather than in a Muay Thai club so he engaged a training partner to train with him at home instead. There's a pageant of which the final round will take place next month in Kyoto. I would've imagined that Aiko is highly likely to enter the final. My friend said "I bet you that Fumi will enter the final" My friend Alex has received a commission to compose a waltz for the pageant as one of the contestants will be showcasing her waltz dance which we all can't wait to see. Let me offer him my congratulations for getting a commission for a waltz from the pageant since it's a rare opportunity. I too endorse the congratulations to Kawai on progressing through the preliminary round. She's a contestant in the beauty contest and I won't be surprised if she progresses through the semifinal.
Since both of us are Marvel fans the next day we went to the cinema and joined the queue for the movie tickets for Avengers. His friends joined us for the movie in the cinema later.
I hear a concert hall is being constructed at Rome University with a grant from the faculty of arts and humanities. The construction of it is progressing well. Though the construction is an arduous and complex task it'll be worth it. The Roman government has awarded my friend Naoki a one million seven hundred forty nine thousand eight hundred and fifty dollar study grant to study biotechnology at the university. He loves kickboxing. He's lucky because his professor grants permission to use the cage and ring at university. His elder brother has also received a forty five million six hundred twelve thousand dollar research grant for research into space elevators there. He's been having a crush on this girl named Jo for eight years but Jo has a boyfriend. His friend said "That's totally fair. She's quite attractive" But he's beginning to realise he has no place in her scheme of things. He's just being a doormat so I told him to forget her. She's just not worth it. His eldest brother is applying for a research grant for research on flying cars while his elder sister is studying artificial intelligence there. Last Friday after supper she hurried back home. I asked "why all the hurry?" I turns out that the student grant for her student grant is about to dry up in which case she won't be able to continue with her studies. That's why she's in a desperate hurry to find a job. In addition I lent her a textbook who said she would let me have it back next week but I said "that's ok. There isn't any great hurry" Naoki's great great grandfather was a clarinetist during the romantic period who started off by performing in salons and progressed to big concert halls. He died in a forest at the age of ninety nine. There was abundant compelling evidence that a hailstorm was a contributory factor in the accident. His younger sister started off her career as a junior accountant in a local accounting firm then progressed to an accounting manager in an international firm. I had a friendly chat with her the other day. We started off discussing her career plans and gradually the conversation progressed to our favourite movies. Project Gutenberg is worth seeing for its three-D effects and the excitement it generates. I saw it twice on the big screen and watched it three more times on DVD when it was off the big screen. It kept me on the edge of my seat the entire time. The movie fulfilled my expectation. The majority of the movie is flashbacks to the incidents before Lee Man is arrested. There's an unexpected twist in the plot towards the end of the movie. The Mummy is also a worthwhile movie which starts with a flashback to Imhotep's past. His eldest sister started off her career as a security guard but quickly progressed to a manager. I enjoy chatting with her but whenever we chat we never seem to progress beyond her favourite sport baseball. She loves painting but alas she has no talent for it. She never progressed beyond the stage of painting cartoon characters. She's been wondering about setting up a hotel business in Central. I think it's worth a try as she has a razor-sharp mind. My auntie too thinks it's worth giving it a go. She'll try to get sanctions for building it in Central. I would imagine the government will sanction her proposals. Naoki has opened a sports retailer. He has got sixty two million nine hundred eleven thousand dollars' worth of gym and boxing equipment in his store. Over eighteen million one hundred thirty three thousand dollars' worth of jacuzzi tubs, boxing rings and fitness machines have been shipped nationwide over the last fourteen months so he's doing a fantastic job of it. He loves gambling. In fact he's on his way to the casino where he'll up the ante on the roulette wheel this time which he's excited about. He did five hours worth of work this afternoon though before heading for the casino. He has a Chanel watchband worth seventy nine dollars. His Lamborghini is worth one million three hundred thousand dollars.
He's worth half a million whereas his girlfriend must be worth over fifty million. He's a god-fearing churchgoer who says his prayers every night before going to sleep. He's been having recurring flashbacks of a car crash recently after seeing a car accident on the news so yesterday he went to the church and asked a pastor from his church to pray for him. His church stresses the importance of daily prayer in the life of a christian. He's bought a house lately. He's done five weeks' worth of furniture shopping for it but it'll need a lot more work before he can move in. He asked me about selling his original house. I said "Your best bet would be to sell it this year" This Saturday the property developer will be giving a talk on the facilities they're planning on building for the clubhouse which is worth his attention. It'll soak up eighty percent of their budget. He's a kickboxing fan. The promoter has announced that a rematch between Shane and Oscar is in the works. In their first fight, Shane started off the match with a right cross followed by a left uppercut which knocked Oscar out. Apparently Oscar suffered from a minor injury which took the edge of his performance. Both are fantastic fighters but in a rematch I think Oscar will edge the fight. The fans are excited about the rematch but Shane has upped the ante by demanding a salary two times more. Hopefully the rematch will eventually happen. In January John will be fighting Dom. If he tests positive for steroids again the fans will be terribly disappointed in him. The promoter too will be bitterly disappointed with him since last year two of his tests came back positive. As a result he was suspended for nine months. However if he loses because of ring rust due to having been suspended for nine months the fans including me will be deeply disappointed at the result. My brother who's a fan of him too will be terribly disappointed by the fact that he loses due to ring rust because of having been suspended. Last year I was bitterly disappointed to find his fight against Dan was overturned to a no contest. The fans was deeply disappointed to hear he would be suspended too. Five years ago, John fought Matt in which he was disqualified for landing illegal downward elbows. Therefore he lost by disqualification by which I was a bit disappointed. Two years later he used yet another illegal move in a fight against Anthony which was a knee to the grounded opponent's head. The referee could've stopped the fight which would've been a cheap triumph for Anthony but fortunately he didn't. Instead he called for a timeout to let him have a rest. John said in the post-fight press conference that when the referee called a timeout he immediately had flashbacks of his fight against Matt. The promoter of the organisation sometimes pretends to be a fighter's friend but will sell him down the river the moment it makes financial sense for him. He pretended like he was Tito's friend but once his prime had passed he sold him down the river by dismissing him. Like swimming kickboxing requires an exquisite sense of timing. It used to be huge in Japan but today it's most popular in America but not that popular in the global scheme of things. I'm planning on retrofitting my boxing gym with a ring and a cage. They're worth having as they make sparring more effective. A retrofit for my personal gym room is necessary too which involves putting in a lat pulldown machine. The book "martial arts styles" is worth reading as it teaches you the correct and effective ways of landing punches and kicks as well as executing submissions.
My friend Jason is an aquarius whereas his girlfriend is a leo. He's faithful to her and would never cheat on her. When he broke up with his e x he was driven over the edge. Even when a stranger talked to him there was a definite edge of hostility to his voice. But as soon as he had a new relationship target it took the edge of his emotional upset. His ex is a swimming champion who far outshines us in any swimming styles. She's tall and lean who definitely has the edge over lots of swimmers. Recently Jason was in scuffles with a guy who was hitting on his girlfriend. The police showed up later and assigned jealousy as the motive for the scuffles. Last Sunday they dined in a restaurant in a hotel which is midway between his place and the post office. They stood in line outside the restaurant for almost an hour. The line was so huge that it stretched from the counter through the lobby area and out the main entrance of the hotel. A stout man tried to cut in line but was caught. Yesterday I visited Jason's place. We met at a midway point between his place and mine then he took me to the shuttle bus bound for his place. A group of people was in the way near the bus stop so he said "Excuse me" The queue was so big stretching down the road to the furthest mini stop. We queued for half an hour until three shuttle buses came along at once. Meanwhile some people mistook this long queue for the queue for other places. A couple came up to us and asked "Are you in the queue for Cluny Park?" as they wanna be sure that it's the right queue. A burly man pushed in midway through the queue. Later a slim guy jumped the queue. The lady behind him said "excuse me. The end of the queue is back there" A woman stood beside a guy who was midway through the queue. While pretending to look at her phone she edged furtively behind him who didn't realise he was there. Some people might have noticed it but ignored it. Jason seemed on edge. It turns out he has a job interview next week. Never has he felt so on edge before an interview. His elder brother is currently a head chef in a five star hotel and feels he's found his niche. His younger brother has also found his niche as a professor having worked as a researcher for three years. He sometimes takes a nap at lunchtime because he has so much work to do that he feels drained. He usually snoozes on the sofa by the fireplace or at his desk when everyone else's eating lunch outside. He once brought his work along to the library where I saw him doze off at the table. Having a doze especially in front of the fire is a marvellous way to replenish your energy though. His eldest brother has just completed his phd at Peking University and is on the way to becoming a professor. China is on the way to becoming the world's strongest economy. His elder sister is robust and healthy. She does lots of strength and conditioning in her robust sneakers. After her gym session she usually has a cup of robust coffee and a glass of robust wine. She lives in Japan where the economy and the political system are robust. His younger sister has opened an antique shop which created a favourable impression on me. There's an exquisite antique that engages my attention. I'll bet the shop engages lots of passers-by. I formed a great impression of the store. Jason's uncle has recently passed away at the age of ninety. I offer my sincere condolences to his uncle's family. His friend Ed said "My condolences to the loss of your uncle" His mum sent her condolences to his uncle's family too. His dad wrote "our condolences go to his family" Jason hadn't heard from his cousin for years until yesterday when he received a call from her. They chatted with exquisite delight. His cousin told him that there was a bully in her class so Jason told her not to engage with her. Just stay out of her way as much as possible. Jason lives in the most exclusive and expensive area in Central and owns many houses. Unlike Floyd, he's never ostentatious.
You can find out how ostentatious Floyd's lifestyle is on Youtube such as his car and house collections. He always wears ostentatious jewellery such as gold necklaces, rings and silver bracelets. He loves driving flashy cars and wearing flashy clothes. Do you remember the incident in Langham Place where the escalator stopped and reversed direction at a speed three times as fast as normal causing people to fall and pile up at the base of the escalator? People were screaming as they tumbled down the escalator. Some people managed to grab the handrail and steady themselves. The incident occasioned a good deal of worry. When you were in secondary school were there any subjects which you weren't interested in and so you didn't engage much in the classes? I remember I didn't really engage in geography classes. I was often daydreaming. Today many students learn piano, violin, painting, dancing, judo and Japanese. I honestly don't know how they juggle these activities with schoolwork. Some of their parents have to go to work every day and so they find it hard to juggle a family and a career. Perhaps they want to kindle their children's interest and see which one they have a talent for or can cultivate an interest in. Sometimes I wonder if the kids are truly enjoying their activities. Jason loves video games. I remember him playing Counterstrike in which he used a gun to engage ninety nine enemies who only had knives lol. I'm reading a book called Parallel worlds written by physicist Kaku. When he was explaining the theories promoting the book on a television show it captured my imagination. It's a fascinating book which explores the science of time travel, eleven dimensional hyperspace, parallel universes and wormholes, subjects that engage numerous readers. I find the subject of black holes most engaging. It was an international bestseller for many months. Jason is a bunny lover. He has one holland lop and two netherland dwarfs. In accordance of animal law in Rome, if your pet is a social animal you must have at least two of them living together. According to the veterinarians you should clip your bunny's nails every month. Rabbits are compatible with most other pets if you teach the other pets well. At Tokyo University researchers conducted an experiment where they showed they could bond a rabbit with a dog in a short period of time. They were happy to find their results were compatible with the results of the study undertaken last year. Hereafter Jason had his bunnies and his Shiba inu living together. He believes he'll continue living with them in the hereafter. You can take the house rabbit journals for free and read them at your leisure. Jason speaks four languages fluently. He told me "because it has a jargonistic tone, instead of writing as per our previous conversation we can simply write as we discussed or as discussed. Instead of writing as per your request, we can just write as you requested. Instead of saying as per our agreement, we can simply say as we agreed. Rather than say please find attached the receipt, we can just say attached is the receipt or enclosed is the receipt or I've attached the receipt. Rather than say I enclose herewith two documents, it's more natural to say enclosed are two documents, or I have enclosed two documents or I have attached two documents. Instead of saying here is the report for your perusal it's more natural to say here is the report for your review. Instead of saying please return the form at your earliest convenience, we can say please return the form by next friday." Jason is a kickboxing fan. Channel one gives live coverage of kickboxing fights. John's fight against Alex received widespread press coverage. His fight against Dan also got detailed media coverage. He tends to get lots of newspaper and magazine coverage because his fights are exciting to watch. Tomorrow the organisation is gonna hold a chairmanship election. Channel one will be giving the election in-depth coverage.