古羅馬

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2019-12-03 21:33:13
古羅馬文明通常是指從公元前9世紀初在義大利半島中部興起的文明,羅馬共和國與羅馬帝國的正式名稱為「元老院與羅馬人民」(拉丁語:Senātus Populus Que Rōmānus),縮寫為SPQR。

王政時代

傳說在公元前754年-753年,羅穆盧斯在台伯河畔建羅馬城開創了王政時代。當時氏族部落組織尚完整存在,統治階層包括王、元老院、庫里亞會議(羅馬稱胞族為庫里亞,每10個氏族組成一個胞族,後為百人隊會議取代),後來又出現貴族與平民之分。
王政時代先後有7個王, 第六任君主 塞爾維烏斯·圖利烏斯 統治時期進行改革,,通過財產的多少將公民劃分為5個不同等級,取代了傳統血緣部落模式。
後來在 公元前534年 圖利烏斯 被 女兒、女婿盧修斯·塔克文·蘇佩布所謀害。
塔克文登基之後暴虐無道,被憤怒的羅馬人趕走 ,百人隊會議從貴族中選出兩名執政官替代 (任期一年),於是在公元前509年王政時代結束, 共和時代從此開始。

共和時代

《共和時代》的權力核心是元老院,但是 《公民大會》也有一定權力,後來貴族和平民之間衝突卻愈來愈深,貴族於是承認了平民所選的「保民官」,負責保護平民的權力不受貴族侵犯。
公元前451年,羅馬頒布了十二銅表法, 被認為是現今「成文法」的始祖,也是羅馬法的源頭。
十二銅表法的內容分別為:傳喚、審判、求償、家父權、繼承及監護、所有權及占有、房屋及土地、私犯、公法、宗教法、前五表之補充、後五表之補充等十二篇。十二銅表法頒布之後,就成為共和時期羅馬法律的主要淵源。該法典對於貴族的權力作了一些限制。法典明文規定了奴隸主貴族的利益和維護私有制,保護羅馬公民的私有財產。此外法典還禁止貴族與平民通婚。





自公元前5世紀初開始,先後戰勝拉丁同盟中的一些城市和伊特拉斯坎人等近鄰,又征服了義大利半島南部的土著和希臘人的城邦,成為地中海西部的大國。
接著羅馬又發動了3次布匿克戰爭,在公元前146年征服了迦太基並使之成為羅馬的一個行省。
羅馬在公元前215年-前168年連續發動3次馬其頓戰爭,征服大部分伊利里亞、馬其頓並控制了整個希臘 (於是歐洲歷史就從希臘時代轉為羅馬時代了)。
然後又通過羅馬-敘利亞戰爭和外交手段,控制了西亞的部分地區,接著擴張成為橫跨歐洲、非洲稱霸地中海的龐大羅馬帝國。
在羅馬擴張的這段時期, 經濟發展迅速,但是也激化了社會矛盾,內戰不斷出現。
當時,羅馬內部的政局並不平靜。由於近百年的連年戰爭,特別是第二次布匿戰爭期間漢尼拔在義大利的肆虐,導致占羅馬兵源主體的自耕農們要麼死於戰火,要麼因長期征戰,無暇顧及自家田地,小農們紛紛破產,變為無地者。
2019-12-03 21:34:19
同時,破產者的田地以及被征服地區的土地往往被貴族和大地主兼併或者以很低廉的價格收購。羅馬共和國早期占主體的眾多家庭的小型農場逐漸被擁有大量奴隸的大莊園(拉丁語:Latifundia,意為「大地產」)取代。
由於大莊園制的形成,奴隸勞動的廣泛使用,亞平寧半島的農業、工商業和高利貸業興盛,奴隸制經濟得到巨大發展;破產農民大量的淪為遊民,使羅馬社會矛盾激化。
由於當時參軍者必須具有羅馬公民權,且擁有一定數量的財產,當這些人喪失財產,羅馬軍隊的兵源就會逐漸枯竭,公民兵制的基礎遭到嚴重破壞,軍隊實力也大受打擊。
前2世紀30年代~前1世紀30年代,史稱內戰時代,先後爆發了西西里奴隸起義和斯巴達克起義,形成了破產農民與大地主的鬥爭,無權者與當權者的鬥爭,騎士派與元老派的鬥爭等交織進行,於是引發了保民官 格拉古兄弟進行的改革。
公元133年提比略·格拉古當選為保民官,提出土地法案,重新安排公有土地(拉丁語:ager publicus)的所有權,所有在之前戰爭中占領的土地都將屬於國家,但將會被租賃給公民個人。按照這個方案,沒有人可以占有超過500尤格(拉丁語:iugera,約合130公頃或310英畝)的公有土地。所有的超額部分將被收歸國有,但與之前的《李錫尼亞·塞克斯蒂亞法案》相比,措施稍顯溫和:為了安撫這些大地主 (有些可能在數代前就已經擁有了這些土地 ) ,法案允許他們通過一次性購買而擁有這些土地的產權,而不是租用。
此外,《提比略》還要求將這些收歸國有的多餘土地重新分配給羅馬的窮人及無家可歸者。每人可分得30尤格的小塊土地供其餬口與容身,而且這些新得的財產還能使其達到繳稅與服兵役的資格。因而這部法律其實在進行土地改革的同時還能幫助羅馬兵源解決逐漸匱乏的問題。
《提比略》後來被反對派的貴族殺害, 其餘改革派人士也被大肆迫害,或被放逐或被處死,土地改革運動至此中斷。
但是為了安撫眾多支持《提比略》的平民,元老院不得不同意執行《提比略》的法案,《提比略》死後6年的時間裡,先後有8萬平民分到了土地。在下一個十年的人口普查中公民數量的增加,也證實了有大量土地被分配給了無地者。但是,土地改革還是遇到了很多困難及障礙。
被認為是謀害提比略的主要兇手之一的納西卡,事後被眾多支持或同情《提比略》的平民辱罵為羅馬罪人。他被元老院派去小亞細亞,並在不久後死於帕加馬。
10年後,《提比略》的弟弟蓋約·格拉古任保民官,繼續第二次改革。
蓋約·格拉古 流放了 執政官《波皮利阿斯》,並宣布他所成立用來處死 格拉古黨人的死刑法庭為非法。
蓋約·格拉古 繼續實施《提比略》的土地法,落實了土地改革的政策。
接著提出了授與騎士司法權的 阿奇利亞(the Lex Acilia)法案,這對騎士階級有利,可以避免受貴族迫害誣陷。
2019-12-03 21:35:46
他向普通公民提供了更多福利,使得他們的工資得以降到僱主可以接受的程度。此外並計劃建立更多海外殖民地以安置數以千計的平民。
在他的呼籲下,公民大會通過糧食法(Lex Frumentariato),要求國家從北非和西西里進口並批量儲存糧食,使得所有羅馬公民的以每月以低價購入它們。此外,這位保民官規劃了宏偉的義大利道路系統藍圖以促進交流和貿易的發展,並要求設立監察員來防止稅吏的貪污。
至於政治方面,蓋約·格拉古 最具有遠見的建議就是所謂的特許公民權(’franchise bill’), 這項措施將《把羅馬公民權的範圍推廣到所有拉丁公民》,並且《將拉丁公民權給予所有義大利同盟者》。然而,這項提議被拒絕了。因為那些短視的羅馬平民並不想把來自於公民權的利益,那些廉價的穀物和娛樂,與他人分享。 這一舉措的未被採納在一定程度上導致了災難性的同盟戰爭 。
公元前121年,反對改革的元老貴族又殺害了蓋約·格拉古, 隨後三千名改革者的追隨者被抓住處死,鮮血染紅了台伯河。
不過《格拉古兄弟》提出的法案大多保留了下來。
公元前107年,在民主派支持下,馬略當選為執政官並開始實行軍事改革。他推行募兵制,使大批無地或少地公民湧入軍隊。
格拉古兄弟改革,衝擊了豪門貴族的統治,打擊了大土地所有制,使羅馬的上地集中現象得到緩和,對於羅馬社會的發展起到了促進作用。
公元前90年,為了爭取羅馬公民權,拉丁人起義,史稱同盟者戰爭。
公元前82年,貴族派支持的蘇拉率軍占領羅馬。次年迫使公民大會選舉他為終身獨裁官,開創了羅馬歷史上軍事獨裁的先例。

三巨頭時期

公元前60年,克拉蘇、凱撒、龐培秘密結盟 ( 目的是使「這個國家的任何一項措施都不得違反他們三人之一的意願」),共同控制羅馬政局,史稱前三頭同盟。 (為了鞏固這一政治聯盟,五十歲的龐培還娶了凱撒年僅14歲的獨女茱莉婭)。三人結盟後,勢力大增。在 執政官《畢布路斯》宣布有不祥徵兆欲終止會議的時候,凱撒竟粗暴地動用武力,將同為執政官的《畢布路斯》趕了出去,而在次日的元老院會議上,竟然無人敢對此提出批評或議論,這是前所未見的。
在完成執政官任期之後,凱撒出任總督五年,管理山南高盧(今阿爾卑斯山南部、義大利北部)、外高盧(今阿爾卑斯山北部、法國南部)和伊利里亞(今巴爾幹半島亞得里亞海沿岸地區)等地區。
凱撒快卸任前他發動了高盧戰爭(前58年-前49年)(不想卸任?),並用了8年時間征服高盧全境(現在的法國),亦襲擊了日耳曼和不列顛。西元前49年,他率軍佔領羅馬,打敗龐培,集大權於一身,實行獨裁統治,並制定了《儒略曆》 ( 凱撒的名字是 Gaius Julius Caesar,其中的Julius音譯之後就是《儒略》,也有人翻成《 朱利葉斯》或《 尤利烏斯》)。凱撒戰勝後帶來巨大的聲望, 讓人在羅馬的龐培感到不安。再加上西元前53年,東征帕提亞的《克拉蘇》戰敗身亡,三頭政治不穩,元老院順勢拉攏龐培,對凱撒 發出召還命令。凱撒 回信表示希望延長高盧總督任期,但被元老院拒絕。於是凱撒違反禁令 帶軍越過盧比孔河 ( 羅馬法律規定,沒有元老院的命令,任何指揮官皆不可私自帶著軍隊渡過盧比孔河,否則就是背叛羅馬) ,然後進入羅馬城。
2019-12-03 21:38:25
帝國時代

「奧古斯都」(屋大維) 在位期間,實行了一系列積極的改革,促進了經濟和社會的發展。並且對外擴張,使帝國北疆達到萊茵河與多瑙河一帶。
奧古斯都 (屋大維) 死後,其養子提比略繼位,從此開創了皇位繼承制。從前27年開始到192年這一時期被稱為前期帝國時期,包括3個王朝:克勞狄王朝、弗拉維王朝和安東尼王朝。這一時期社會相對穩定,史稱羅馬和平。安東尼王朝皇帝圖拉真(98年-117年)在位時,帝國疆域達到最大:西起西班牙、不列顛,東到幼發拉底河上游、南自非洲北部,北達萊茵河與多瑙河一帶,地中海成為帝國的內海。經濟空前繁榮。公元1世紀中葉基督教興起,並在公元2世紀、3世紀迅速傳播 (這造成後來中世紀教會與教皇在歐洲的龐大勢力)。





羅馬帝國在公元117年的疆土範圍
192年,安東尼王朝最後一位皇帝康茂德被短劍刺身亡後,羅馬出現了近百年的混亂時期。史學家將193年塞維魯王朝建立,到235年這段時期稱為後期帝國時期。始於安東尼王朝後期的社會、經濟和軍事危機,在公元3世紀達到空前規模,以致一些史家又劃出一個三世紀危機時期(193年-284年)。這一時期,戰爭頻仍,皇帝更迭頻繁,奴隸和隸農的起義遍及各地,3世紀60年代在高盧開始的巴高達運動,對統治階層的統治造成很大的威脅。
在危機時期,羅馬帝國內亂不斷,外敵也紛紛入侵,而且軍人專政,干預皇帝廢立,後來在西元284年,近衛軍長官戴克里先由軍隊擁立做皇帝,取得帝國政權。
新皇帝戴克里先上任後,自知一人無力應付奴隸起義及異族入侵,於是把羅馬帝國西半部(即義大利、西班牙、高盧、不列顛、中歐、北非)交由其好友馬克西米安管治,自己則管治羅馬帝國東半部(即巴爾幹半島、東南歐、小亞細亞、巴勒斯坦、敘利亞、黎巴嫩、約旦、埃及)。兩人也分別設立副職,並由四人合治國家,史稱四帝共治制。
戴克里先改元首制為多米那特製(即君主制),正式採用東方君主的統治形式和禮儀。並實行了許多改革,史稱戴克里先改革。
在戴克里先統治的303年,羅馬帝國開始最後且最大的一次對基督徒的迫害。戴克里先命令基督徒士兵需要離開軍隊,其後基督教堂的私產被充公,而且基督教的書籍被燒毀。在戴克里先的宮殿被兩次縱火後,其對基督徒採取更強硬的措施:基督徒要麼放棄信仰,要麼被處死。這次對基督徒的逼害行動持續至313年君士坦丁一世頒布米蘭敕令為止。後繼者君士坦丁一世廢除四帝共治制,於324年成為唯一君主,皇權得到加強。330年建在原拜占庭建城君士坦丁堡。
公元313年,君士坦丁一世頒布米蘭敕令,承認基督教的合法地位。帝國時期,基督教開始發展,教義倡導平等博愛、相互扶持,吸引大批社會底層的人民和奴隸信仰。由於拒絕接納羅馬信奉的諸神明、不願將羅馬在世的皇帝視為神明,故受羅馬政府的打壓與迫害。例如戴克里先皇帝(284~305在位)就大肆迫害基督教(其手段連多神教信徒都難以茍同),然而當時基督教的勢力已非常強大,加上實行的成效不彰,即使用極端的手段也無法把它剷除。隨著羅馬帝國國勢走下坡,內部與外部危機的出現,不少上流社會的貴族亦改信為基督徒。公元313年,君士坦丁頒布的米蘭敕令,宣布羅馬帝國境內有信仰基督教的自由,並且發還了已經沒收的教會財產,亦承認了基督教的合法地位,並且君士坦丁本人在死前皈依了基督教。
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後來狄奧多西一世在392年頒下詔令,獨尊基督教為羅馬帝國的國教。結果在不到100年的時間裏,基督教就從少數人的宗教變成為地球上最大帝國裏,具政治勢力居支配地位的法定宗教。由此可見,君士坦丁是歐洲史與基督教史上舉足輕重的關鍵人物之一。而基督教的政治勢力擴張,發展到後來就造就了十字軍東征的發生。公元337年君士坦丁一世死後,戰爭又起,羅馬帝國受到嚴重打擊。公元395年狄奧多西一世死後,統一的帝國分裂為東羅馬帝國和西羅馬帝國兩部分。在西羅馬帝國,經濟不斷出現危機,人口減少,田地荒蕪,城鄉蕭條,統治亦日益減弱。持續衰落之中的西羅馬帝國在此期間面臨著歐洲內外發生的極為廣泛的民族遷徙活動。以日耳曼人、斯拉夫人、匈人為首的外來民族進入了羅馬帝國領地內,帶來了持續的戰爭。外來民族的持續入侵最終導致了西羅馬帝國的滅亡。日耳曼蠻族大遷徙的事件,對羅馬帝國造成打擊,特別是分裂後的西羅馬帝國還因此滅亡。這一系列歷史事件發生於羅馬帝國古典時代晚期(公元4–6世紀),一般認為開始於公元375年來自亞洲的匈人入侵歐洲,結束於公元568年倫巴第人徹底征服義大利。這一廣泛的遷徙現象是多種因素作用的結果,許多專家對其中不同單因素的影響做出過大量的闡述研究。公元382年,羅馬帝國與個別部落就在其領土內定居達成協議,日耳曼諸蠻族中的一支 — — 法蘭克人被獲准進入羅馬帝國定居,以衛戍帝國的高盧東北邊境。(這一支民族後來成立了法蘭克王國,這一王國是現代德國、法國的雛形。)隨著以汪達爾人和蘇維匯人為首的蠻族部落跨過萊茵河,西羅馬帝國的統治開始被這些入侵行為所不斷動搖。接踵而至的部落間、部落與西羅馬帝國居民間的持續紛爭使得羅馬帝國的權力匯集到日耳曼人以及羅馬人的軍隊當中。
410年8月24日,西哥特人亞拉里克一世攻陷了羅馬城。452年,匈人國王阿提拉進兵亞平寧半島。455年6月2日,汪達爾人攻陷羅馬城,並造成毀滅性破壞。先後建立起西哥特王國、汪達爾-阿蘭王國、勃艮第王國和東哥特王國等蠻族國家。476年9月,西哥特人人軍隊長官奧多亞克廢黜最後一位君主羅慕路斯·奧古斯都,西羅馬帝國宣告結束。

東羅馬帝國
與在長期內亂和蠻族內遷中步入死亡的西羅馬帝國不同,東羅馬帝國倚靠東方穩固的農業經濟體系,仍然保持相當的活力,到了6世紀時,國力重新達到了高峰,在查士丁尼大帝的統治下幾乎光復羅馬全土。然而盛極始衰,此後古老的經濟政治軍事制度再次遭受到南下的斯拉夫人和西進的波斯人及阿拉伯穆斯林的挑戰,經歷7世紀的鎮痛後,以喪失了北非近東的大量領土為代價,東羅馬帝國完成了經濟軍事的封建化,政治制度的君主專制化和文化的希臘化以及東正教化,重新綻放活力,並在11世紀初期進入經濟文化上的全盛時期。查士丁尼 統治時間是從527年到565年。由於他收復了許多失土,重建聖索菲亞教堂,並編纂查士丁尼法典,功不可沒,因此也被稱為查士丁尼大帝。然而11世紀末葉面對來自塞爾柱突厥人的入侵,中興之主亞歷克賽一世請求天主教諸國的軍事援助 (也就是十字軍) 的舉動,卻為往後東羅馬滅亡埋下了伏筆。
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英文
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire. The civilisation began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, traditionally dated to 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time) covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a elective monarchy to a democratic classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic semi-elective military dictatorship during the Empire. Through conquest, cultural, and linguistic assimilation, at its height it controlled the North African coast, Egypt, Southern Europe, and most of Western Europe, the Balkans, Crimea and much of the Middle East, including Anatolia, Levant and parts of Mesopotamia and Arabia. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republic such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars, Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily; took Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal); and destroyed the city of Carthage in 146 BC, giving Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean. By the end of the Republic (27 BC), Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus. Seven-hundred and twenty-one years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with the first struggle against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. It stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century before some stability was restored in the Dominate phase of imperial rule.
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Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power through the middle ages until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most commonly referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians to differentiate between the state in antiquity and the state during the Middle Ages. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, and who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf (or a shepherd's wife in some accounts) saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. The twins then founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about who was going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem, in that Rome came to have a large male population but was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave. One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they soon realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships. The Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid, where the Trojan prince Aeneas is destined by the gods to found a new Troy. In the epic, the women also refuse to go back to the sea, but they were not left on the Tiber. After reaching Italy, Aeneas, who wanted to marry Lavinia, was forced to wage war with her former suitor, Turnus. According to the poem, the Alban kings were descended from Aeneas, and thus Romulus, the founder of Rome, was his descendant. The city of Rome grew from settlements around a ford on the river Tiber, a crossroads of traffic and trade. According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded some time in the 8th century BC, though it may go back as far as the 10th century BC, by members of the Latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the Palatine Hill.
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The Etruscans, who had previously settled to the north in Etruria, seem to have established political control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming an aristocratic and monarchical elite. The Etruscans apparently lost power by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the original Latin and Sabine tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power. Roman tradition and archaeological evidence point to a complex within the Forum Romanum as the seat of power for the king and the beginnings of the religious center there as well. Numa Pompilius the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus, began Rome's building projects with his royal palace the Regia and the complex of the Vestal virgins. According to tradition and later writers such as Livy, the Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established. A constitution set a series of checks and balances, and a separation of powers. The most important magistrates were the two consuls, who together exercised executive authority such as imperium, or military command.The consuls had to work with the senate, which was initially an advisory council of the ranking nobility, or patricians, but grew in size and power.Other magistrates of the Republic include tribunes, quaestors, aediles, praetors and censors. The magistracies were originally restricted to patricians, but were later opened to common people, or plebeians. Republican voting assemblies included the comitia centuriata (centuriate assembly), which voted on matters of war and peace and elected men to the most important offices, and the comitia tributa (tribal assembly), which elected less important offices. In the 4th century BC, Rome had come under attack by the Gauls, who now extended their power in the Italian peninsula beyond the Po Valley and through Etruria. On 16 July 390 BC, a Gallic army under the leadership of tribal chieftain Brennus, met the Romans on the banks of the Allia River ten miles north of Rome. Brennus defeated the Romans, and the Gauls marched to Rome. Most Romans had fled the city, but some barricaded themselves upon the Capitoline Hill for a last stand. The Gauls looted and burned the city, then laid siege to the Capitoline Hill. The siege lasted seven months. The Gauls then agreed to give the Romans peace in exchange for 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of gold. According to later legend, the Roman supervising the weighing noticed that the Gauls were using false scales. The Romans then took up arms and defeated the Gauls. Their victorious general Camillus remarked "With iron, not with gold, Rome buys her freedom." The Romans gradually subdued the other peoples on the Italian peninsula, including the Etruscans.] The last threat to Roman hegemony in Italy came when Tarentum, a major Greek colony, enlisted the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus in 281 BC, but this effort failed as well. The Romans secured their conquests by founding Roman colonies in strategic areas, thereby establishing stable control over the region of Italy they had conquered. In the 3rd century BC Rome faced a new and formidable opponent: Carthage. Carthage was a rich, flourishing Phoenician city-state that intended to dominate the Mediterranean area. The two cities were allies in the times of Pyrrhus, who was a menace to both, but with Rome's hegemony in mainland Italy and the Carthaginian thalassocracy, these cities became the two major powers in the Western Mediterranean and their contention over the Mediterranean led to conflict.
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The First Punic War began in 264 BC, when the city of Messana asked for Carthage's help in their conflicts with Hiero II of Syracuse. After the Carthaginian intercession, Messana asked Rome to expel the Carthaginians. Rome entered this war because Syracuse and Messana were too close to the newly conquered Greek cities of Southern Italy and Carthage was now able to make an offensive through Roman territory; along with this, Rome could extend its domain over Sicily. Although the Romans had experience in land battles, defeating this new enemy required naval battles. Carthage was a maritime power, and the Roman lack of ships and naval experience made the path to the victory a long and difficult one for the Roman Republic. Despite this, after more than 20 years of war, Rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed. Among the reasons for the Second Punic War was the subsequent war reparations Carthage acquiesced to at the end of the First Punic War. The Second Punic War is famous for its brilliant generals: on the Punic side Hannibal and Hasdrubal; on the Roman, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus and Publius Cornelius Scipio. Rome fought this war simultaneously with the First Macedonian War. The war began with the audacious invasion of Hispania by Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had led operations on Sicily in the First Punic War. Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, rapidly marched through Hispania to the Italian Alps, causing panic among Rome's Italian allies. The best way found to defeat Hannibal's purpose of causing the Italians to abandon Rome was to delay the Carthaginians with a guerrilla war of attrition, a strategy propounded by Quintus Fabius Maximus, who would be nicknamed Cunctator ("delayer" in Latin), and whose strategy would be forever after known as Fabian. Due to this, Hannibal's goal was unachieved: he could not bring enough Italian cities to revolt against Rome and replenish his diminishing army, and he thus lacked the machines and manpower to besiege Rome. Still, Hannibal's invasion lasted over 16 years, ravaging Italy. Finally, when the Romans perceived the depletion of Hannibal's supplies, they sent Scipio, who had defeated Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal in modern-day Spain, to invade the unprotected Carthaginian hinterland and force Hannibal to return to defend Carthage itself. The result was the ending of the Second Punic War by the famously decisive Battle of Zama in October 202 BC, which gave to Scipio his agnomen Africanus. At great cost, Rome had made significant gains: the conquest of Hispania by Scipio, and of Syracuse, the last Greek realm in Sicily, by Marcellus. More than a half century after these events, Carthage was humiliated and Rome was no more concerned about the African menace. The Republic's focus now was only to the Hellenistic kingdoms of Greece and revolts in Hispania. However, Carthage, after having paid the war indemnity, felt that its commitments and submission to Rome had ceased, a vision not shared by the Roman Senate. When in 151 BC Numidia invaded Carthage, Carthage asked for Roman intercession. Ambassadors were sent to Carthage, among them was Marcus Porcius Cato, who after seeing that Carthage could make a comeback and regain its importance, ended all his speeches, no matter what the subject was, by saying: "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" ("Furthermore, I think that Carthage must be destroyed"). As Carthage fought with Numidia without Roman consent, the Third Punic War began when Rome declared war against Carthage in 149 BC. Carthage resisted well at the first strike, with the participation of all the inhabitants of the city. However, Carthage could not withstand the attack of Scipio Aemilianus.
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As Carthage fought with Numidia without Roman consent, the Third Punic War began when Rome declared war against Carthage in 149 BC. Carthage resisted well at the first strike, with the participation of all the inhabitants of the city. However, Carthage could not withstand the attack of Scipio Aemilianus, who entirely destroyed the city and its walls, enslaved and sold all the citizens and gained control of that region, which became the province of Africa. Thus ended the Punic War period. All these wars resulted in Rome's first overseas conquests (Sicily, Hispania and Africa) and the rise of Rome as a significant imperial power and began the end of democracy. After defeating the Macedonian and Seleucid Empires in the 2nd century BC, the Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean Sea. The conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms brought the Roman and Greek cultures in closer contact and the Roman elite, once rural, became a luxurious and cosmopolitan one. At this time Rome was a consolidated empire—in the military view—and had no major enemies. Foreign dominance led to internal strife. Senators became rich at the provinces' expense; soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home longer and could not maintain their land; and the increased reliance on foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia reduced the availability of paid work.
Income from war booty, mercantilism in the new provinces, and tax farming created new economic opportunities for the wealthy, forming a new class of merchants, called the equestrians. The lex Claudia forbade members of the Senate from engaging in commerce, so while the equestrians could theoretically join the Senate, they were severely restricted in political power. The Senate squabbled perpetually, repeatedly blocked important land reforms and refused to give the equestrian class a larger say in the government.
Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence. The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians. Both brothers were killed and the Senate passed reforms reversing the Gracchi brother's actions. This led to the growing divide of the plebeian groups (populares) and equestrian classes (optimates).Marius and Sulla

Gaius Marius, a novus homo, who started his political career with the help of the powerful Metelli family soon become a leader of the Republic, holding the first of his seven consulships (an unprecedented number) in 107 BC by arguing that his former patron Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus was not able to defeat and capture the Numidian king Jugurtha. Marius then started his military reform: in his recruitment to fight Jugurtha, he levied the very poor (an innovation), and many landless men entered the army; this was the seed of securing loyalty of the army to the General in command.
At this time, Marius began his quarrel with Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Marius, who wanted to capture Jugurtha, asked Bocchus, son-in-law of Jugurtha, to hand him over. As Marius failed, Sulla, a general of Marius at that time, in a dangerous enterprise, went himself to Bocchus and convinced Bocchus to hand Jugurtha over to him. This was very provocative to Marius, since many of his enemies were encouraging Sulla to oppose Marius. Despite this, Marius was elected for five consecutive consulships from 104 to 100 BC, as Rome needed a military leader to defeat the Cimbri and the Teutones, who were threatening Rome.After Marius's retirement, Rome had a brief peace, during which the Italian socii ("allies" in Latin) requested Roman citizenship and voting rights.
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In 88 BC, Sulla was elected for his first consulship and his first assignment was to defeat Mithridates VI of Pontus, whose intentions were to conquer the Eastern part of the Roman territories. However, Marius's partisans managed his installation to the military command, defying Sulla and the Senate, and this caused Sulla's wrath. To consolidate his own power, Sulla conducted a surprising and illegal action: he marched to Rome with his legions, killing all those who showed support to Marius's cause and impaling their heads in the Roman Forum. In the following year, 87 BC, Marius, who had fled at Sulla's march, returned to Rome while Sulla was campaigning in Greece. He seized power along with the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna and killed the other consul, Gnaeus Octavius, achieving his seventh consulship. In an attempt to raise Sulla's anger, Marius and Cinna revenged their partisans by conducting a massacre. Marius died in 86 BC, due to age and poor health, just a few months after seizing power. Cinna exercised absolute power until his death in 84 BC. Sulla after returning from his Eastern campaigns, had a free path to reestablish his own power. In 83 BC he made his second march in Rome and began a time of terror: thousands of nobles, knights and senators were executed. Sulla also held two dictatorships and one more consulship, which began the crisis and decline of Roman Republic. In the mid-1st century BC, Roman politics were restless. Political divisions in Rome became identified with two groupings, populares (who hoped for the support of the people) and optimates (the "best", who wanted to maintain exclusive aristocratic control). Sulla overthrew all populist leaders and his constitutional reforms removed powers (such as those of the tribune of the plebs) that had supported populist approaches. Meanwhile, social and economic stresses continued to build; Rome had become a metropolis with a super-rich aristocracy, debt-ridden aspirants, and a large proletariat often of impoverished farmers. The latter groups supported the Catilinarian conspiracy—a resounding failure, since the consul Marcus Tullius Cicero quickly arrested and executed the main leaders of the conspiracy.
Onto this turbulent scene emerged Gaius Julius Caesar, from an aristocratic family of limited wealth. His aunt Julia was Marius' wife, and Caesar identified with the populares. To achieve power, Caesar reconciled the two most powerful men in Rome: Marcus Licinius Crassus, who had financed much of his earlier career, and Crassus' rival, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (anglicized as Pompey), to whom he married his daughter. He formed them into a new informal alliance including himself, the First Triumvirate ("three men"). This satisfied the interests of all three: Crassus, the richest man in Rome, became richer and ultimately achieved high military command; Pompey exerted more influence in the Senate; and Caesar obtained the consulship and military command in Gaul. So long as they could agree, the three were in effect the rulers of Rome. In 54 BC, Caesar's daughter, Pompey's wife, died in childbirth, unraveling one link in the alliance. In 53 BC, Crassus invaded Parthia and was killed in the Battle of Carrhae. The Triumvirate disintegrated at Crassus' death. Crassus had acted as mediator between Caesar and Pompey, and, without him, the two generals manoeuvred against each other for power. Caesar conquered Gaul, obtaining immense wealth, respect in Rome and the loyalty of battle-hardened legions. He also became a clear menace to Pompey and was loathed by many optimates. Confident that Caesar could be stopped by legal means, Pompey's party tried to strip Caesar of his legions, a prelude to Caesar's trial, impoverishment, and exile.
2019-12-03 23:50:55
My Roman friend Paul has been having a crush on this girl named Jo for eight years but Jo has a boyfriend. His friend said "That's totally fair. She's quite attractive" But he's beginning to realise he has no place in her scheme of things. He's just being a doormat so I told him to forget her. She's just not worth it. His uncle said "you would be better off without her" His mother too said "you'll be better off without her" Paul works as an accounting manager at Hilton but if he takes the job at Big 4 he'll be four thousand eight hundred dollars a month better off but he's still better off now than he was two years ago when he was working below everybody else in the department. He thinks a junior accountant position is beneath him. If he hadn't taken the CPA exam he wouldn't be working as a manager now. If he had pursued a career in sales rather than accounting his salary would be much lower. If it hadn't been for his auntie's referral his career wouldn't take off now and he wouldn't start earning a lot of money. He's a science fiction fan. He said "if starships really would exist I would quit my job and spend the rest of my life roaming the universe" Recently his sister married her childhood sweetheart. Her father felt she was marrying beneath her. Her uncle too feels her husband is beneath her. She enjoys socializing with the better off. Last month Paul was away on a business trip to Hokkaido. After his trip I said "if you should travel there again can you get me a pack of white lover cookies please?" Paul is a computer expert. His cousin has to write a report which is due on Thursday but he's having problems with his computer. If Paul will go and fix his computer he'll be so thankful for his help. He also has exams next Monday so he's better off revising at home over the weekend. Paul is a kickboxing fan. His favourite fighter Dan has won his retirement fight lately. He's eternally grateful to his coaches and thankful that he's got a job as a colour commentator after he retired from the sport. All the fans wanna see Fred versus Randy. If Fred would sign a contract with the organisation Dana will make the fight happen. When Randy was reading the terms and conditions of the contract Dana's assistant said "if you would just sign here please" Paul's brother is a concierge in a hotel. I said "if it'll make you happy I'll come to stay for a night as company for you while your colleagues are away" By the end of the next century scientists will have invented starships. As I'm fascinated by the science of starships I'm going to ask physicist Dr. Chow about it. I'm gonna wait outside the lecture room at five to six. He will have finished his lecture. I thought about phoning him at twenty to two but my friend said "don't phone him now. He won't have finished his lecture yet" It's true that he wouldn't have finished teaching yet.
Not every man's type of women are the same. Of course everybody likes handsome and beautiful people. In terms of appearance some men like petite women, some like sporty women, some like them svelte, dome like them tall and thin, some like them well-rounded and curvaceous, some like them voluptuous, some like them busty, some like wide hips, some like curvy legs, some like silky feet and so on. In terms of personality, some men like kind-hearted and helpful women, some like vivacious, some like them compassionate, some like them quiet, some like them sociable and talkative, some like them tactful and diplomatic, some like to be controlled and dominated and so forth. Some women seem to bloom in their early-thirties. For example Tracy has bloomed into an utterly beautiful creature. Paul is a fan of tracy Zhu and samantha Gao, both of whom are exquisitely beautiful women. Like him they both have an exquisite taste in fashion, shows, hairstyles, food, interior and exterior design. Both are glamorous women who always dress up in glamorous outfits. They rarely dress down.
2019-12-03 23:53:40
I once saw tracy dress up in eighties clothing for a party whereas samantha was in a kimono. Both of them have a glamorous job and career. Tracy has got a leading role in the upcoming television series while samantha has got a supporting role in it. She plays the role of a doctor in it. By the way I don't think Paul need to dress up to go to work. A polo shirt and shorts are fine. Just dress down to go to work lol.
2019-12-07 21:55:03
Last week my Roman friend Joe asked if I would like to eat supper at his place. I replied in the affirmative. I had some snacks beforehand to take the edge of my hunger. Joe's favoirite food is beef served with onion. We cut the meat and red peppers into dice, peeled and diced the potatoes and chop the onions. We were careful because the knife has a razor-sharp edge. The inside of the meat is raw while the outer surface is cooked. Onion can be eaten raw or cooked. We washed a bag of pasta salad and left it to dry out before eating it. In this way the salad contains more nutrients than when you consume it right after opening the bag. After supper I said "I'll wash you dry" He came to the kitchen and stood beside me drying up the cutlery and utensils while I washed. Since it's best to dry your clothes out the night before by hanging them on the clothesline I went ahead and helled him do that. We then joined his sister on a run along the promenade which felt relaxing. I bought her a pair of trainers who said she would pay me back if I got her those sneakers. Looks like she sold me a bill of goods- and then I bought s Gucci watchstrap but I'm wondering if this really is authentic. I might have been sold a pup. After running I gave her a foot massage and dried her feet on her brother's quilt lol and a towel. On the evening we joined with their mum in doing a fifty five thousand piece jigsaw puzzle. It was thoroughly enjoyable. Joe is a marketing manager at hilton. I enjoy his company. He uses photoshop every day for poster and banner design as photoshop is worth its weight in gold in digital marketing. The party poster he designed is fabulous. The gold words are clearly defined on the black background. I admire him on his ambition and dogged determination to succeed. He never gets sidetracked by unimportant issues. In addition he enjoys participating in debates. Just the other week he wiled the floor with all opposition during a debate about the existence of god which was pretty impressive. His best friend is his pug. He towels off the dig after its bath. Today dogs certainly don't come cheap including getting them spayed or neutered and any medications they take when they have a condition. His dad is a physics professor who along with his team are solving a notoriously difficult math question for all they're worth. Hopefully they'll find an answer to it soon. Besides physics he's an avid football fan. His favourite team Madrid is currently top of the league whereas rome is bottom of the league. Barcelona is lying fourth in the league this year. Recently Budapest edged milan two-one. Budapest edged its rival, Milan into third place. The league championship is the opportunity for the best teams in the league to strut their stuff. His brother-in-law is an estate agent who earns a basic salary of two hundred sixty nine thousand dollars per annum plus a three percent commission on every deal he makes so he doesn't work on commission only. So far this year his sales have fallen short of the expectations of his company partly because the economy is hardly blooming. He's a fan of Jacqueline Wong. Have you heard of the sex scandal involving her and Andy Hui? She was having an affair with andy who's married to Sammi. No doubt they were an item. As a result many people think it's time for her to hang up her spurs. In fact alan hung up his spurs several years ago because of a sex scandal. His elder sis is an iPhone saleswoman who is paid a daily wage of four hundred dollars.plus a twenty percent commission on the iphones she sells so her job isn't by commission only. Last year her profits fulfilled her expectation. She said she would be on strike but it turned out she was just joking as her dad is an intense patriot. If she had gone on strike her dad wouldn't be happy. Joe's younger sister is a concierge who feels she's chosen the wrong career choice. I said "why not wipe the slate clean and start over in a different career?"
2019-12-07 22:07:32
My Roman friend Joe too suggested that she study a degree course and start with a clean slate. She blames her bad career decision on him. I said "let's just wipe the slate clean. It's over" She blames him for convincing her to be a concierge. Well that's the way the cookie crumbles. His auntie is a professional footballer. Shes so focused during a match that she never goes off on a sidetrack. His brother has opened a beauty parlour. Hopefully it attracts lots of customers since he bet the ranch on it. His uncle was broke several years ago because he bet the farm on his company which went bankrupt later. He managed to honour his debts in three years. His grandad was commissioned as.a sergeant major in the army whereas his great grandfather obtained a commission as a senior officer in the air force before the first world war. He was buried with full military honours. Some women seem to bloom in their early-thirties. For example tracy has bloomed into an utterly beautiful creature. Not every man's type of women is the same. Of course everybody likes handsome and beautiful people. In terms of appearance some men like petite women, some like sporty women, some like them svelte, some like them tall and thin, some like them well-rounded and curvaceous, some like them voluptuous, some like full bust, some like wode hips, some like shapely legs, some like silky feet and so forth. In terms of personality some men like kind-hearted and helpful women, some men like compassionate women, some like them vivacious, some like them tactful and diplomatic, some like them quiet, some like them sociable and talkative, some like to be controlled and dominated and so on. Joe is a fan of tracy Zhu and samantha Gao, both of whom are exquisitely beautiful women. Like him they both have an exquisite taste in fashion, shoes, food, hairstyles, interior and exterior design. Both are glamorous women who always dress up in glamorous outfits. They rarely dress down. I once saw tracy dress up in a bikini for a party while samantha was in superman costume. Both of them have a glamorous job and career. I consider acting a worthwhile career. Tracy has got a.leading role in the upcoming television series whereas samantha has got a supporting role in it. She plays the role of a doctor in it. By the way I don't think joe needs to dress up to go to work. A polo shirt and shorts are fine. Just dress down to go to work lol. Joe thinks if a girl without makeup still looks pretty then she's pretty. And there shouldn't be a big difference between with makeup and without.
2019-12-11 13:07:55
Joe's cousin is planning on doing a phd since nowadays a master's isn't worth the paper it's written on let alone a bachelor degree. Last Wednesday he was almost swindled out of thousands of dollars. I told him that person was a scammer who was trying to swindle money from him. The contract isn't worth the paper its printed on. Fortunately he listened to me. Otherwise the scammer would've swindled him out of thousands of dollars. I've read in the newspapers that some customers were promised to get a refund of they weren't happy with the products but later they found out that they had been sold down the river as they have been unable to contact the scammer to date. The swindler didn't honour the contracts.I remember a decade ago there was a demonstration where the demonstrators clashed with the police in osaka. I saw it on NHK then. I thought the police were not tough enough. All the riot police were holding a shield in one hand and a nightstick in the other hand. In this way you can't really fight the protestors and arrest them since you have no free hands to grab ahold of them. That's why it took four policemen to get hold of one protestor. From a fighting viewpoint some of the riot police should be holding just a shield, some just a truncheon, the other both. And all of them should be trained on how they fight when they're holding just a shield, holding just a baton and holding both. It was utter chaos. I didn't think that isaka had ever been so disastrous before. The police who I wholeheartedly supported only used tear smoke in an attempt to disperse the protestors which was clearly not enough. The police shouldn't have been afraid of being criticized for using excessive force because this was utterly not the case. Firing rubber bullets and bean bags at the protestors was necessary, lawful and appropriate. Those who sabotaged the nearby buildings and the railings should've been thrown in jail. The train network was partially paralyzed for many weeks. The world had brought the city to the edge of a catastrophe. The United states had already imposed trade sanctions on Japan. The then united states president said he would take punitive measures against japan if the police there used excessive force. Japan was afraid that America would toughen punitive import tariffs still further on clothes, food, agricultural products and alcohol and worse still they would convince other nations to impose international economic sanctions against the country. Of course the downside was the cost of the products in America which they had imposed punitive import duties on would rise still higher. The economic sanctions against Japan wouldn't be lifted until the then US president's term of office expired a year later. The next day everybody was warned of the danger of violent clashes around the place only to discover that it was a false alarm. There were half as many people in the street. However as long as you kept up with the news and stayed away from.places where there were protests it was safe in osaka. In the same evening a bus crash killed twenty five passengers. Detectives assigned the blame for the accident to a hailstorm- and then a brutal murder took place in the capital. Detectives assigned hatred and jealousy as the motives for the horrendous crime.
2019-12-11 17:56:13
最近睇緊古希臘嘅歷史
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save低慢慢睇
2019-12-16 13:01:34
I came to Rome in the company of my friend Amy. It was a long journey and I was grateful for her company. On the day we set off I was waiting for her on the corner outside times square. She lives just round the corner so it only took her ten minutes to arrive. Meanwhile a pedestrian came up and asked if there was any medical centre nearby as she had been suffering from heatstroke. I told her that there were a clinic and a pharmacy just around the corner. As summer was just round the corner people suffered from heatstroke more easily. However there're many ways to prevent heatstroke during hot weather. At home sitting in a recliner or an armchair or on a sofa rather than in a chair or on a stool works wonders for your body. Moreover, eating a balanced diet of veggies and fruits and a little meat does wonders for your health. Lastly, exercise and meditation can do wonders for mind and body. We stayed in our Roman friend Tomio's place for a few days. His elder brother had popped upstairs to get a book. We were watching television in the living room while Tomio was cooking in the kitchen. His younger brother had popped to the bank to get some cash while his sister had popped into a music shop to get some trumpet scores. As he entered the living room I jumped out from behind the wall and cried "Boo!" It was absolutely hilarious as I was finally able to frighten him successfully. Risa would pop in and see us later. His boyfriend would also pop over and visit us a day later. Risa said she deserved a promotion but instead her colleague was given a promotion because her boss is biased towards her colleague. I said that's the way the cookie crumbles. It's water under the bridge. What's done is done. Amy too said It's no use crying over spilt milk. What's done cannot be undone. Let bygones be bygones. Apparently his manager is also biased against her but in favour of her colleague. Oh well. She told me not to mention it when we're in company. By all means. Next week I'll pop over to her place to play her cornet. I prefer the company of musicians. Before she popped in she was browsing in Zara. In the meantime I went for a browse around a bookshop and popped into the bank to open an account. The residential estate Tomio lives in consists of houses rather than apartments. Each house has at least one retractable awning or canopy. The canopy could be made of stainless steel, cloth, glass, steel or concrete. In his front garden he planted a litchi tree, a mango tree, a black maple, two red maples, a chestnut oak and bushes in the lawn. Some of the bushes produce beautiful trombone-shaped flowers. He also grew flowers such as roses, orchids, sunflowers, hydrangeas, lavender and violets, most of which are in bloom. There're some exquisite flowerpots placed near the lawn. He mows the grass every now and then. He hires a gardener to manicure his garden from time to time. His back garden is enormous which is two thousand five hundred square foot in size. It used to be a lawn but he turned it into a meadow blanketed in wild flowers and exotic flowers. Some of the flower buds haven't opened yet but as the weather gets warmer the flowers open. Even inside his house he has a vase of hydrangea and a couple plotted plants, some of which are just coming into bloom. Orchids can be cultivated in flower pots or in vases. In summer the meadow is covered in beautiful summer flowers. In spring the meadow is blanketed with lovely spring flowers. In the fall, the meadow is a mass of pretty fall flowers. In winter lovely winter flowers bloom in the meadow. It's an extraordinary garden. Every valentine's day Tomio buys his wife a bouquet of red roses and hydrangea. They're beautiful cut flowers. On the morning of the first day, his next-door neighbour's canopy was leaking all over the floor in Tomio's garden due to heavy rain.
2019-12-16 13:11:32
The water pipe attached to his stainless steel canopy was also dripping water down the wall onto his floor so he asked if he could enter their garden and wipe the edge of the canopy and the water pipe and mop them so as to stop water from leaking out of them. I too entered their garden and helped mop the water pipe and the edge of the canopy so as to stop water from leaking from them. There was a leak in their canopy so they had a bucket underneath for the water to drop into but the bucket was overflowing all over the floor which caused flooding. Then we placed another bucket beside it but very soon water began to overflow from the bucket. I tried to soak up the water with towels but it was impossible. Water soaked into my shoes. Rain soaked through his shoes and clothes too. Some of his neighbours said they had a leak inside their house as well. I asked him if the typhoon that happened a little while ago do any damage to his house. He said some tree branches and twigs tumbled down during the hurricane so he had to give his garden a good cleanup. Some tree trunks in the nearby park toppled over as a result of the hurricane. Risa called two hours later and said she finally got a promotion. The opportunity that she'd waited for so long has finally come along. Opportunities like this don't always come along. After she left zara her friends came along in her car and offered her a lift to a restaurant and celebrated with her. I enjoy my own company and so does she. I enjoy strolling hand in hand with my girlfriend along the nearby beach. In fact I went there earlier. With only my thoughts for company I lay down on the beach reading a book. It was thoroughly enjoyable. Risa arrived on the early evening. I didn't know she had company. As she was the last person to leave the house I kept her company until the bus came. Tomio wants to train Muay Thai privately rather than in a Muay Thai club so he engaged a training partner to train with him at home instead. There's a pageant of which the final round will take place next month in Kyoto. I would've imagined that Aiko is highly likely to enter the final. My friend said "I bet you that Fumi will enter the final" My friend Alex has received a commission to compose a waltz for the pageant as one of the contestants will be showcasing her waltz dance which we all can't wait to see. Let me offer him my congratulations for getting a commission for a waltz from the pageant since it's a rare opportunity. I too endorse the congratulations to Kawai on progressing through the preliminary round. She's a contestant in the beauty contest and I won't be surprised if she progresses through the semifinal.
2019-12-16 15:22:18
Since both of us are Marvel fans the next day we went to the cinema and joined the queue for the movie tickets for Avengers. His friends joined us for the movie in the cinema later.
2019-12-17 13:50:04
I hear a concert hall is being constructed at Rome University with a grant from the faculty of arts and humanities. The construction of it is progressing well. Though the construction is an arduous and complex task it'll be worth it. The Roman government has awarded my friend Naoki a one million seven hundred forty nine thousand eight hundred and fifty dollar study grant to study biotechnology at the university. He loves kickboxing. He's lucky because his professor grants permission to use the cage and ring at university. His elder brother has also received a forty five million six hundred twelve thousand dollar research grant for research into space elevators there. He's been having a crush on this girl named Jo for eight years but Jo has a boyfriend. His friend said "That's totally fair. She's quite attractive" But he's beginning to realise he has no place in her scheme of things. He's just being a doormat so I told him to forget her. She's just not worth it. His eldest brother is applying for a research grant for research on flying cars while his elder sister is studying artificial intelligence there. Last Friday after supper she hurried back home. I asked "why all the hurry?" I turns out that the student grant for her student grant is about to dry up in which case she won't be able to continue with her studies. That's why she's in a desperate hurry to find a job. In addition I lent her a textbook who said she would let me have it back next week but I said "that's ok. There isn't any great hurry" Naoki's great great grandfather was a clarinetist during the romantic period who started off by performing in salons and progressed to big concert halls. He died in a forest at the age of ninety nine. There was abundant compelling evidence that a hailstorm was a contributory factor in the accident. His younger sister started off her career as a junior accountant in a local accounting firm then progressed to an accounting manager in an international firm. I had a friendly chat with her the other day. We started off discussing her career plans and gradually the conversation progressed to our favourite movies. Project Gutenberg is worth seeing for its three-D effects and the excitement it generates. I saw it twice on the big screen and watched it three more times on DVD when it was off the big screen. It kept me on the edge of my seat the entire time. The movie fulfilled my expectation. The majority of the movie is flashbacks to the incidents before Lee Man is arrested. There's an unexpected twist in the plot towards the end of the movie. The Mummy is also a worthwhile movie which starts with a flashback to Imhotep's past. His eldest sister started off her career as a security guard but quickly progressed to a manager. I enjoy chatting with her but whenever we chat we never seem to progress beyond her favourite sport baseball. She loves painting but alas she has no talent for it. She never progressed beyond the stage of painting cartoon characters. She's been wondering about setting up a hotel business in Central. I think it's worth a try as she has a razor-sharp mind. My auntie too thinks it's worth giving it a go. She'll try to get sanctions for building it in Central. I would imagine the government will sanction her proposals. Naoki has opened a sports retailer. He has got sixty two million nine hundred eleven thousand dollars' worth of gym and boxing equipment in his store. Over eighteen million one hundred thirty three thousand dollars' worth of jacuzzi tubs, boxing rings and fitness machines have been shipped nationwide over the last fourteen months so he's doing a fantastic job of it. He loves gambling. In fact he's on his way to the casino where he'll up the ante on the roulette wheel this time which he's excited about. He did five hours worth of work this afternoon though before heading for the casino. He has a Chanel watchband worth seventy nine dollars. His Lamborghini is worth one million three hundred thousand dollars.
2019-12-17 14:04:01
He's worth half a million whereas his girlfriend must be worth over fifty million. He's a god-fearing churchgoer who says his prayers every night before going to sleep. He's been having recurring flashbacks of a car crash recently after seeing a car accident on the news so yesterday he went to the church and asked a pastor from his church to pray for him. His church stresses the importance of daily prayer in the life of a christian. He's bought a house lately. He's done five weeks' worth of furniture shopping for it but it'll need a lot more work before he can move in. He asked me about selling his original house. I said "Your best bet would be to sell it this year" This Saturday the property developer will be giving a talk on the facilities they're planning on building for the clubhouse which is worth his attention. It'll soak up eighty percent of their budget. He's a kickboxing fan. The promoter has announced that a rematch between Shane and Oscar is in the works. In their first fight, Shane started off the match with a right cross followed by a left uppercut which knocked Oscar out. Apparently Oscar suffered from a minor injury which took the edge of his performance. Both are fantastic fighters but in a rematch I think Oscar will edge the fight. The fans are excited about the rematch but Shane has upped the ante by demanding a salary two times more. Hopefully the rematch will eventually happen. In January John will be fighting Dom. If he tests positive for steroids again the fans will be terribly disappointed in him. The promoter too will be bitterly disappointed with him since last year two of his tests came back positive. As a result he was suspended for nine months. However if he loses because of ring rust due to having been suspended for nine months the fans including me will be deeply disappointed at the result. My brother who's a fan of him too will be terribly disappointed by the fact that he loses due to ring rust because of having been suspended. Last year I was bitterly disappointed to find his fight against Dan was overturned to a no contest. The fans was deeply disappointed to hear he would be suspended too. Five years ago, John fought Matt in which he was disqualified for landing illegal downward elbows. Therefore he lost by disqualification by which I was a bit disappointed. Two years later he used yet another illegal move in a fight against Anthony which was a knee to the grounded opponent's head. The referee could've stopped the fight which would've been a cheap triumph for Anthony but fortunately he didn't. Instead he called for a timeout to let him have a rest. John said in the post-fight press conference that when the referee called a timeout he immediately had flashbacks of his fight against Matt. The promoter of the organisation sometimes pretends to be a fighter's friend but will sell him down the river the moment it makes financial sense for him. He pretended like he was Tito's friend but once his prime had passed he sold him down the river by dismissing him. Like swimming kickboxing requires an exquisite sense of timing. It used to be huge in Japan but today it's most popular in America but not that popular in the global scheme of things. I'm planning on retrofitting my boxing gym with a ring and a cage. They're worth having as they make sparring more effective. A retrofit for my personal gym room is necessary too which involves putting in a lat pulldown machine. The book "martial arts styles" is worth reading as it teaches you the correct and effective ways of landing punches and kicks as well as executing submissions.
2019-12-17 14:25:07
My friend Jason is an aquarius whereas his girlfriend is a leo. He's faithful to her and would never cheat on her. When he broke up with his e x he was driven over the edge. Even when a stranger talked to him there was a definite edge of hostility to his voice. But as soon as he had a new relationship target it took the edge of his emotional upset. His ex is a swimming champion who far outshines us in any swimming styles. She's tall and lean who definitely has the edge over lots of swimmers. Recently Jason was in scuffles with a guy who was hitting on his girlfriend. The police showed up later and assigned jealousy as the motive for the scuffles. Last Sunday they dined in a restaurant in a hotel which is midway between his place and the post office. They stood in line outside the restaurant for almost an hour. The line was so huge that it stretched from the counter through the lobby area and out the main entrance of the hotel. A stout man tried to cut in line but was caught. Yesterday I visited Jason's place. We met at a midway point between his place and mine then he took me to the shuttle bus bound for his place. A group of people was in the way near the bus stop so he said "Excuse me" The queue was so big stretching down the road to the furthest mini stop. We queued for half an hour until three shuttle buses came along at once. Meanwhile some people mistook this long queue for the queue for other places. A couple came up to us and asked "Are you in the queue for Cluny Park?" as they wanna be sure that it's the right queue. A burly man pushed in midway through the queue. Later a slim guy jumped the queue. The lady behind him said "excuse me. The end of the queue is back there" A woman stood beside a guy who was midway through the queue. While pretending to look at her phone she edged furtively behind him who didn't realise he was there. Some people might have noticed it but ignored it. Jason seemed on edge. It turns out he has a job interview next week. Never has he felt so on edge before an interview. His elder brother is currently a head chef in a five star hotel and feels he's found his niche. His younger brother has also found his niche as a professor having worked as a researcher for three years. He sometimes takes a nap at lunchtime because he has so much work to do that he feels drained. He usually snoozes on the sofa by the fireplace or at his desk when everyone else's eating lunch outside. He once brought his work along to the library where I saw him doze off at the table. Having a doze especially in front of the fire is a marvellous way to replenish your energy though. His eldest brother has just completed his phd at Peking University and is on the way to becoming a professor. China is on the way to becoming the world's strongest economy. His elder sister is robust and healthy. She does lots of strength and conditioning in her robust sneakers. After her gym session she usually has a cup of robust coffee and a glass of robust wine. She lives in Japan where the economy and the political system are robust. His younger sister has opened an antique shop which created a favourable impression on me. There's an exquisite antique that engages my attention. I'll bet the shop engages lots of passers-by. I formed a great impression of the store. Jason's uncle has recently passed away at the age of ninety. I offer my sincere condolences to his uncle's family. His friend Ed said "My condolences to the loss of your uncle" His mum sent her condolences to his uncle's family too. His dad wrote "our condolences go to his family" Jason hadn't heard from his cousin for years until yesterday when he received a call from her. They chatted with exquisite delight. His cousin told him that there was a bully in her class so Jason told her not to engage with her. Just stay out of her way as much as possible. Jason lives in the most exclusive and expensive area in Central and owns many houses. Unlike Floyd, he's never ostentatious.
2019-12-17 14:42:10
You can find out how ostentatious Floyd's lifestyle is on Youtube such as his car and house collections. He always wears ostentatious jewellery such as gold necklaces, rings and silver bracelets. He loves driving flashy cars and wearing flashy clothes. Do you remember the incident in Langham Place where the escalator stopped and reversed direction at a speed three times as fast as normal causing people to fall and pile up at the base of the escalator? People were screaming as they tumbled down the escalator. Some people managed to grab the handrail and steady themselves. The incident occasioned a good deal of worry. When you were in secondary school were there any subjects which you weren't interested in and so you didn't engage much in the classes? I remember I didn't really engage in geography classes. I was often daydreaming. Today many students learn piano, violin, painting, dancing, judo and Japanese. I honestly don't know how they juggle these activities with schoolwork. Some of their parents have to go to work every day and so they find it hard to juggle a family and a career. Perhaps they want to kindle their children's interest and see which one they have a talent for or can cultivate an interest in. Sometimes I wonder if the kids are truly enjoying their activities. Jason loves video games. I remember him playing Counterstrike in which he used a gun to engage ninety nine enemies who only had knives lol. I'm reading a book called Parallel worlds written by physicist Kaku. When he was explaining the theories promoting the book on a television show it captured my imagination. It's a fascinating book which explores the science of time travel, eleven dimensional hyperspace, parallel universes and wormholes, subjects that engage numerous readers. I find the subject of black holes most engaging. It was an international bestseller for many months. Jason is a bunny lover. He has one holland lop and two netherland dwarfs. In accordance of animal law in Rome, if your pet is a social animal you must have at least two of them living together. According to the veterinarians you should clip your bunny's nails every month. Rabbits are compatible with most other pets if you teach the other pets well. At Tokyo University researchers conducted an experiment where they showed they could bond a rabbit with a dog in a short period of time. They were happy to find their results were compatible with the results of the study undertaken last year. Hereafter Jason had his bunnies and his Shiba inu living together. He believes he'll continue living with them in the hereafter. You can take the house rabbit journals for free and read them at your leisure. Jason speaks four languages fluently. He told me "because it has a jargonistic tone, instead of writing as per our previous conversation we can simply write as we discussed or as discussed. Instead of writing as per your request, we can just write as you requested. Instead of saying as per our agreement, we can simply say as we agreed. Rather than say please find attached the receipt, we can just say attached is the receipt or enclosed is the receipt or I've attached the receipt. Rather than say I enclose herewith two documents, it's more natural to say enclosed are two documents, or I have enclosed two documents or I have attached two documents. Instead of saying here is the report for your perusal it's more natural to say here is the report for your review. Instead of saying please return the form at your earliest convenience, we can say please return the form by next friday." Jason is a kickboxing fan. Channel one gives live coverage of kickboxing fights. John's fight against Alex received widespread press coverage. His fight against Dan also got detailed media coverage. He tends to get lots of newspaper and magazine coverage because his fights are exciting to watch. Tomorrow the organisation is gonna hold a chairmanship election. Channel one will be giving the election in-depth coverage.
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