- no wings
- metamorphosis slight or absent
- one or more pairs of pre-genital appendages on abdomen
- metamorphosis occurs
- no pre-genital appendages on abdomen
- simple metamorphosis
- pupa rarely present
- wings developed externally
- complex metamorphossi
- pupa present
- wings developed internally
1. requires synchronisation
- get together at the right time and relevent resource
2. overt displays
- for not attracting the wrong species
3. attraction to resources (food)
4. pheromones (female)
6. swarms (mostly male)
- got massive resouces in one location
- females come in and have opportunity to make
It promotes its own survival without necessarily promotes survival of the organism, group or even species.
1. Primary reproductives (eventually become king and queen)
- winged adults
Roles: Establish colony
2. Secondary (supplementary reproductive if either primary dies)
- wingless adults
Spring: building new colony
Autumn: emerge from dying colonies
There are two female castes: queen and workers.
The queens and males have wings but lost after mating and then the male dies.
The body temperature varies considerably in response to the environmental change.
- it maintains a stable body temperature by regulating metabolic processes.
- its body temperature is higher than external environment.
uses environmental heat sources to regulate body temperature
generates heat internally through high metabolic rate to maintain a high body temperature
The animal must balance the heat generation and heat loss to the environment in order to maintain a stable body temperature.
Reducing heat loss:
1. mammal hair is excellent for insulating heat loss
2. blubber, fine insulating hair and guard hair
This gives off no detectable heat when sleeping.
- move slowly and rest often
- excess heat loss where fur is absent and the blood vessels close to skin
- swim to cool down
- the fur can moult.
1. shivering and exercise
- generate extra heat through direct muscular heat production
- elongated metacarpal n phalange V
- elongated metacarpals n phalanges
- feathers are stiff so dont need extend limb